Hans Laroo Research Areas

Optical and Electronic Effects and Testing

Fact file: On Silver

Silver per se, is a lustrous transitional metal, endowed with a reflectivity of 97% across the entire visible spectrum, but for an absorbance totalling 3% at around 417 to 420nm and perhaps at 700nm as thermal heat. It is also highly light-sensitive and has been used to a large extent in the photographic industry. Silver, atomic weight 107. 8682, atomic number 47 is considered the best conductor of electricity and heat. Its shares these abilities with copper and gold. It also shares having an unpaired electron in the outer shell, i.e. copper in the 4th shell, silver in the 5th shell and gold in the 8th shell respectively. These outer electrons are significant in two ways, (a) in being so far from the nucleus that current flows very easily and b, in a quick release from the atom under certain circumstances to do with relativistic effects and the most likely for its propensity to kill bacteria located on their metallic surfaces. In the case of silver through a combination of the photo-electric effect (Einstein 1909), local plasmon resonance and the quantum confined electron phenomenon, blue-shifting of longer wavelengths of light can occur to result in ultraviolet light. The name silver most likely originated from the Anglo-Saxon word Seolfor and the abbreviation Ag is attributed from Argentum. Silver is claimed to have 68 isotopes of which only two are stable and in an abundance ratio of Ag 107 for 51.839% and Ag 109 for 48.161%. A further unusual property of silver is its natural tendency is to seek stability against ionisation by donating its outer valence and bonding electrons to the formation of clusters.

Fact file: Electrons, electronic activity and current

In a bulk metallic conductor, electrons as current carriers, are able to move with relative ease. Silver is categorised as one of the best over a broad range of temperatures. They always move from a low toward a high voltage potential, i.e. negative energy flow. Within the atom, electrons represent the negative polarity and the protons the positive polarity. Even an electron on its own as a hydrated or solvated electron in an aqueous medium like water as an electric charge attracts Hydrogen and other positive ions (cations). This directional current flow is always the same, even in a vacuum tube. The minimum elements in a vacuum tube are the cathode and the anode plate. More sophistication allows for a heater element to enhance the cathode operation and a grid to control current flow between cathode and anode plate with an external signal that either alternates increases or reductions in current flow with direct current or is able to inject an alternating and modulating signal. However either electrons or ionic charge carriers always flow from an area of low or zero potential to one that is higher. Likewise, atoms that are missing one or more electrons are relatively more positive and called a cation (attracted to the cathode) or have an excess of one or more electrons and are deemed more positive and called an anion (attracted to the anode).

Comment: It never ceases to amaze me how electricity suppliers constantly referring to electric current as POSITIVE ENERGY, when obviously electric current is negative energy.

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The Variety of Optical and Electronic effects

It is our view that a combination of analogue optical and electronic technologies and even on their own are more than capable of determining and analysing the various properties of pure water

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The Case of curious scientific oddity and coincidence

That coincidences in physics come in very small packages is borne out in this short essay. It all started when investigating alternative and superior methods in producing a high grade of colloidal silver.

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I am an independent science researcher in the realm of Quantum physics in “nanometer sixed atomic silver clusters in an aqueous electrical suspension”, more popularly known as, ”Nano Colloidal Silver”.

Ipswich Australia 4305, Australia
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